Blaydon War Memorial - the Names of the Fallen

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Private Samuel HIGGINS 1892 – 1916

                         Samuel Higgins was born at Harrington, near Whitehaven, Cumberland. He was the son of Mary
Jane Watson and at the time of the 1911 census was living at 4 Church Terrace, Blaydon and later at 37 Theresa Street, Blaydon with his mother, sister Margaret, step father Ralph Watson and seven other half siblings. He worked as a bottle gatherer at the glass bottle works as did his step father. Samuel attested to the Northumberland Fusiliers 27th Battalion Tyneside Irish, service No: 25/566. Posted to France, Samuel was killed in action on 4 September 1916 age 23 years. On that day the British had attacked on line Eaucourt-le- Sars ( on the Albert – Baupaume Road ) all objectives were taken on a front of three  thousand yards and Eaucourt was occupied.Samuel is named on Thiepval Memorial to the Missing, France; Pier and Face 10B, 11B and 12B. July 1916, supported by a French attack to the south, thirteen divisions of Commonwealth forces launched an offensive on a line from north of Gommecourt to Maricourt.Despite a preliminary bombardment lasting seven days, the German defences were barely touched and the attack met unexpectedly fierce resistance. Losses were catastrophic and with only minimal advances on the southern flank, the initial attack was a failure. In the following weeks, huge resources of manpower and equipment were deployed in an attempt to exploit the modest successes of the
first day. However, the German Army resisted tenaciously and repeated attacks and counter attacks meant a major battle for every village, copse and farmhouse gained. At the end of September, Thiepval was finally captured. The village had been an original objective of 1 July. Attacks north and east continued throughout October and into November in increasingly difficult weather conditions.
The Battle of the Somme finally ended on 18 November with the onset of winter.In the spring of 1917, the German forces fell back to their newly prepared defences, the Hindenburg Line, and there were no further significant engagements in the Somme sector until the Germans mounted their major offensive in March 1918. The Thiepval Memorial, the Memorial to the Missing of the Somme, bears the
names of more than 72,000 officers and men of the United Kingdom and South African forces who died in the Somme sector before 20 March 1918 and have no known grave. Over 90% of those commemorated died between July and November 1916. The memorial also serves as an Anglo-French Battle Memorial in recognition of the joint nature of the 1916 offensive and a small cemetery containing equal numbers of Commonwealth and French graves lies at the foot of  the memorial.

   Awarded the
British War and Victory Medals, locally Samuel is remembered on the Blaydon War
Memorial and on the plaque at St. Cuthbert’s Church, Blaydon.

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Private Thomas HINDMORE  1892 – 1916

   Thomas Hindmore was a coal miner and the son of Thomas Hindmore of 70 James Street Blaydon and the husband of Ellen Surrey (formerly Hindmore) of 23 Robinson Street, Blaydon.Enlisted Durham Light Infantry service No: 16492 and transferred to Northumberland Fusiliers ‘B’ Coy. 24th Battalion Tyneside Irish Service No: 24/1578. Posted to France he was killed in action on 1 July 1916 age 24 years. Awarded the British war and Victory medals he was buried at Cerisy – Gailly French National Cemetery, Somme which was the site of the 39th and 13th Casualty Clearing Stations during the early part of 1917, and of the 41st Stationary Hospital from May 1917 to March 1918. The villages were then captured by the Germans, but were retaken by the Australian Corps in August 1918.Cerisy-Gailly French National Cemetery was begun by a clearing hospital of the French Tenth Army in February 1916. The great majority of these soldiers died in the Battle of the Somme in 1916. The cemetery now contains 393 Commonwealth burials of the First World War.

 Locally remembered at Blaydon War Memorial and St. Cuthbert’s Church, Blaydon.

 

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Private Adam HODGSON 1886 – 1914

 
           Adam Hodgson was the son of Joseph and Isabella ( Laffie ) Hodgson, one of seven children. In 1901 the family were
living at 118 James Street, Blaydon where Adam worked as a clerk at an iron works and his father was a railway foreman. By 1911 father Joseph had died and Isabella was at 47 Mary Street with three of her sons, she later lived at 58 Theresa Street, Blaydon. Adam was already a member of the military services and serving abroad.Adam enlisted at Newcastle upon Tyne and served with the East
Yorkshire Regiment ‘A’ Company 1st Battalion, service No: 8129. Posted to France he died from wounds received on 20 October 1914 age 28 years and is buried at Lille Southern Cemetery, grave ref: III.A.7. Lille was occupied by the Germans from 27th August to the 5th
September 1914, and again on the 12th October; and it remained in their hands, undamaged by Allied artillery, until the 17th October 1918. Southern Cemetery was used by the Germans during the greater part of the War, and after the Armistice by the 39th Stationary Hospital and the 1st Australian Casualty Clearing Station.There are now over 600, 1914-18 and nearly 300, 1939-45 war casualties commemorated in this site. Of these, a small number from the 1914-18 War are unidentified and a special memorial is erected to one
soldier from the United Kingdom known to be buried among them. From the 1939-45 War nearly 40 are unidentified.The French number of Plot I is V.2; that of Plot II, V.4; and that of Plot III (where British prisoners of War are buried) J.1.The Second War graves are in French plot 82.

 

Adam was awarded
the 14 Star and Clasp, British War and Victory Medals and locally he is
remembered on the Blaydon War Memorial and on the plaque at St. Cuthbert’s
Church, Blaydon.

The 14 Star bronze medal award was authorized by King George V in April 1917 for those who had served in France or Belgium between 5th August 1914 to midnight on 22nd November 1914 inclusive. The award was open to officers and men of the British and Indian Expeditionary Forces, doctors and nurses as well as Royal Navy, Royal Marines, Royal Navy Reserve and Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve who served ashore with the Royal Naval Division in France or Belgium.A narrow horizontal bronze clasp sewn onto the ribbon, bearing the dates '5th AUG. - 22nd NOV. 1914' shows that  the recipient had actually served under fire of the enemy during that period.
For every seven medals issued without a clasp there were approximately five issued with the clasp.Recipients who received the medal with the clasp were also entitled to attach a small silver heraldic rose to the ribbon when just the ribbon was being worn.The reverse is plain with the recipient's service number, rank, name and unit impressed on it. It should be remembered that recipients of this medal were responsible for assisting the French to hold back the German army while new recruits could be trained and equipped. Collectively,
they fully deserve a great deal of honour for their part in the first sixteen weeks of the Great War. This included the battle of Mons, the retreat to the Seine, the battles of Le Cateau, the Marne, the Aisne and the first battle of Ypres. There were approximately 378,000 1914 Stars issued.

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Sergeant Albert HOGG   1883-1917





 

                           In 1911 Albert Hogg, coalminer stoneman born Trenholme, Yorkshire was living at 92 Edward Street, Blaydon with his wife Florence, born Worcestershire, son Albert and a nephew. He was the second son of William and Mary Ann Hogg of Glen Street, Hebburn and  had five brothers and two sisters. He married in 1908. In all he had three sons - Albert Edward,Harold, and Arthur Stanley who were approximately 8yrs, 6yrs and 3 years old at the time of his death.  In 1901 he was serving with the Coldstream Guards.   He re-enlisted on 19th September 1914, joining the Durham Light Infantry 19th Battalion service No. 54661

. He was killed on 25 August 1917 and is buried at Villers-Faucon Communal Cemetery, Somme, France. Villers-Faucon was captured on 27 March 1917, lost on 22 March 1918, and retaken  on 7 September 1918.The Commonwealth graves in the communal cemetery are those of soldiers who died in February-August 1917.The communal cemetery contains 227 First World War burials, five of them unidentified, and 91 German graves.

Awarded the British War & Victory medals

Locally, Albert is remembered on the Blaydon War Memorial.



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Corporal Robert HOLLIDAY 1894 – 1916
 

Robert Holliday was the son of William Holliday of 38 Polmaise Street, Blaydon. Robert served with the Northumberland Fusiliers 23d Battalion Tyneside Scottish service No: 23/728.Posted to France, Robert died of wounds on 5 April 1916 and he is buried
at Boulogne Eastern Cemetery grave ref: VIII.D.92 Boulogne was one of the three base ports most extensively used by the Commonwealth armies on the Western Front throughout the First World War. It was closed and cleared on the 27 August 1914 when the
Allies were forced to fall back ahead of the German advance, but was opened again in October and from that month to the end of the war, Boulogne and Wimereux formed one of the chief hospital areas.Until June 1918, the dead from the hospitals at Boulogne itself were buried in the Cimetiere de L'Est, one of the town cemeteries, the Commonwealth graves forming a long, narrow strip along
the right hand edge of the cemetery. In the spring of 1918, it was found that space was running short in the Eastern Cemetery in spite of repeated extensions to the south, and the site of the new cemetery at Terlincthun was chosen. During the Second World War, hospitals were again posted to Boulogne for a short time in May 1940. The town was taken by the Germans at the end of that month and remained in their hands until recaptured by the Canadians on 22 September 1944.Boulogne Eastern Cemetery contains 5,577 Commonwealth burials of the First World War and 224 from the Second World War.


Awarded the British War and Victory Medals,
locally Robert is remembered on the Blaydon War Memorial, the plaque at St.
Cuthbert’s Church, Blaydon and the St. John Wesley Memorial at Trinity
Methodist Church, Blaydon.

 

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Private Joseph HOLMES  d1916                       

 

Joseph Homes was born at Tanfield, Co. Durham. He worked as a miner at Addison Colliery and attested at Newcastle upon Tyne to the Northumberland Fusiliers, ‘B’ Company 23d Battalion, 4th Tyneside Scottish, service No: 23/214.Posted to France he was killed in action on 1 July 1916. On 1 July 1916,the first day of the Battle of the Somme, the 8th Division attacked Ovillers and the 34th Division La Boisselle. The villages were not captured, but ground was won between them and to the south of La Boisselle. On 4 July, the 19th
(Western) Division cleared La Boisselle and on 7 July the 12th (Eastern) and 25th Divisions gained part of Ovillers, the village being cleared by the 48th (South Midland) Division on 17 July. The two villages were lost during the German advance in March 1918, but they were retaken on the following 24 August by the 38th (Welsh) Division.

Joseph was buried at Ovillers Military Cemetery, grave ref: XII.J.I.

Ovillers Military Cemetery was begun before the capture of Ovillers, as a battle cemetery behind a dressing station. It was used until March 1917, by which time it contained 143 graves, about half the present Plot I. The cemetery was increased after the Armistice when Commonwealth and French graves where brought in, mainly from the battlefields of Pozieres, Ovillers, La Boisselle and Contalmaison, and from the following two cemeteries:-Mash Valley Cemetery, Ovillers-La Boisselle, was about 200 metres North of Ovillers Military
Cemetery. It was named from one of two valleys (Mash and Sausage) which run from South-West to North-East on either side of La Boisselle. It contained the graves of 76 soldiers from the United Kingdom who fell in July-September 1916.Red Dragon Cemetery, Ovillers-La Boisselle, was midway between Ovillers and La Boisselle. It was made by the 16th and 17th Royal Welch Fusiliers, and
named from their badge. It contained the graves of 25 soldiers who fell in August 1918, all of whom belonged to the 38th (Welsh) Division, and all but three to the Royal Welch Fusiliers.There are now 3,440 Commonwealth servicemen of the First World War buried or commemorated in the cemetery. 2,480 of the burials are unidentified but there are special memorials to 24 casualties believed to be buried among them. Other special memorials record the names of 35 casualties, buried in Mash Valley Cemetery, whose graves were destroyed in later fighting. The cemetery also contains 120 French war graves.

 Awarded the
British War and Victory Medals, Joseph is remembered locally on the Blaydon war
Memorial, the plaque at St. Cuthbert’s Church, Blaydon and he was named on the
Addison War Memorial.

 
      
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Private James HOME 1885 – 1917

 
James Home was the son of William and Mary Ann Home. He was born in Blaydon and in 1901 the family; James, his parents, sister Mary and brother James  were living at 10 Cowen Street, Blaydon where James’ father worked as a blacksmith. Another brother William lived in the same street. In 1907 James married Margaret Swann Gilfillin of Hood Square, Winlaton and by 1911 they were living in lodgings at 8 Townely Street, Blaydon Haughs and James was working as a general labourer at the iron works. James enlisted at
Gateshead and served with the Border Regiment ‘B’ Company 7th Battalion service No: 18461. NB: the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists him as James Holmes service No: 181461.James was killed in action on 23 April 1917. On that day the 2d phase of the Battle of Arras began and the British attacked north and south of the Scarpe ( Arras) capturing two villages. James is named
on the Arras Memorial, Bay 6.The French had handed over Arras to Commonwealth forces in the spring of 1916 and the system of tunnels upon which the town is built were used and developed in preparation for the major offensive planned for April 1917.The Commonwealth section of the Faubourg D'amiens Cemetery was begun in March 1916, behind the French military cemetery established earlier.It continued to be used by field ambulances and fighting units until November 1918. The cemetery was enlarged after the Armistice when graves were brought in from the battlefields and from two smaller cemeteries in the vicinity.The cemetery contains over 2,650 Commonwealth burials of the First World War, 10 of which are unidentified. The graves in the French military cemetery were removed after the war to other burial grounds and the land they had occupied was used for the construction of the Arras Memorial and Arras Flying Services Memorial. The adjacent Arras Memorial commemorates almost 35,000 servicemen from the United Kingdom, South Africa and New Zealand who died in the Arras sector between the spring of 1916 and 7 August 1918, the eve of the Advance to
Victory, and have no known grave. The most conspicuous events of this period were the Arras offensive of April-May 1917, and the German attack in the spring of 1918. Canadian and Australian servicemen killed in these operations are commemorated by memorials at Vimy and Villers-Bretonneux. A separate memorial remembers those killed in the Battle of Cambrai in 1917.

James was awarded the 15 Star, British War and Victory Medals and is remembered
locally on the Blaydon War Memorial and the plaque at St. Cuthbert’s Church,
Blaydon.

James widow Margaret remarried in 1918 to William Montgomery  and lived at 4 Town Yard,Asfordby,Melton Mowbray,Leics.

 

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George HOPPER 1892– 1923

 George Hopper born in Blaydon was the son of John and Mary Hopper and one of 10 surviving children, including younger brother John. In 1911 George was working as a labourer at a coke works while his father worked as a waterman. At this time they lived at 9 Hawdon Place Gateshead. A later address is 23 James Street, Blaydon. George served with Durham Light Infantry he was wounded as
spent time as a prisoner of war. This was reported in the Blaydon Courier on 29 June 1918. George died in February 1923.


Brother John also served. See: HOPPER/BLAYDON 132

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Private John Hymers HOPPER 1897 – 1916 



                  John Hymers Hopper was one of 10 surviving children and the son of John and Mary Hopper. The family were all born in Blaydon but in 1911 were at 9 Hawdon Place, Gateshead. John’s father was working as a waterman while elder brother George was a labourer at a coke works. They later lived at 23 James Street, Blaydon and John worked as a miner at Addison Colliery. John enlisted at
Newcastle upon Tyne on 21 November 1914 to the Northumberland Fusiliers 25th Battalion ‘C’ Company Tyneside Irish.Service No:
25/994. Posted to France he served in the battle of the Somme and was killed in action on 1 July 1916. His name is recorded on the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing, Somme, France. Pier and Face 10B,11B, and  12B. On 1 July 1916,supported by a French attack to the south, thirteen divisions of Commonwealth forces launched an offensive on a line from north of Gommecourt to Maricourt.
Despite a preliminary bombardment lasting seven days, the German defences were barely touched and the attack met unexpectedly fierce resistance. Losses were catastrophic and with only minimal advances on the southern flank, the initial attack was a failure. In the following weeks, huge resources of manpower and equipment were deployed in an attempt to exploit the modest successes of the
first day. However, the German Army resisted tenaciously and repeated attacks and counter attacks meant a major battle for every village, copse and farmhouse gained. At the end of September, Thiepval was finally captured. The village had been an original objective of 1 July. Attacks north and east continued throughout October and into November in increasingly difficult weather conditions. The Battle of the Somme finally ended on 18 November with the onset of winter. In the spring of 1917, the German forces fell back to their newly prepared defences, the Hindenburg Line, and there were no further significant engagements in the Somme sector until the Germans mounted their major offensive in March 1918.The Thiepval Memorial, the Memorial to the Missing of the Somme, bears the
names of more than 72,000 officers and men of the United Kingdom and South African forces who died in the Somme sector before 20 March 1918 and have no known grave. Over 90% of those commemorated died between July and November 1916. The memorial also serves as an Anglo-French Battle Memorial in recognition of the joint nature of the 1916 offensive and a small cemetery containing equal numbers of Commonwealth and French graves lies at the foot of the memorial.


John’s obituary appeared in the Blaydon Courier p8
on 24/2/1917.Awarded the British War and Victory Medals, locally, John is
remembered on the Blaydon War Memorial and he was also named on the Addison
Colliery War Memorial.

 John’s brother George also served . See HOPPER/BLAYDON 131

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Private Robert HOPPER 1885-1918

                  Robert Hopper was the son of John and Sarah ( Greener) Hopper and one of six children. In 1911 the family were living at 16 Path Head, Blaydon while Robert worked as a coke yard labourer. He married Mary Whitfield on 10 April 1911 and they had one child, Albert born in 1914. Robert enlisted at Blaydon and served with the Durham Light Infantry 15th Battalion service No; 104502. From surviving records we know he was 5’ 10” tall with light brown hair, grey eyes and weighed 134lbs. He had attested to the army
reserve but was mobilised on 25 June 1918 and posted to France where he disembarked at Etaples on 24 October 1918 He was killed in action on 7 November 1918 age 33 years while his regiment were taking the village of Limont Fontaine on the Somme and was  buried by his comrades near the village. Later his remains were exhumed and his body was reburied at Dourlers Communal Cemetery Extension , plot:II.A.13. A letter from his commanding officer confirms that the new grave had been duly marked with a cross bearing all the late soldiers particulars. The removal had been undertaken with every measure of care and reverence and the re-interment conducted by an army chaplain. Dourlers village was in German hands during almost the whole of the First World War. It was taken on 7 November 1918, after heavy fighting. The communal cemetery was used by the Germans during the war, but in November 1918, a small extension was made by Commonwealth troops at the west end. After the Armistice, the German graves from the communal cemetery and others from the battlefields, together with Commonwealth graves from isolated positions and the following small cemeteries, were brought into the extension:-Limont-Fontaine Communal Cemetery German Extension, contained 45 graves.The Extension contains 161 Commonwealth burials and commemorations of the First World War. 14 of the burials are unidentified but there are special memorials to four casualties known or believed to be buried among them. The extension also contains 108 German burials, 62 of which are unidentified.

 Sadly Robert’s widow Mary Hopper died not long after her husband and their only child Albert was in the care of his grandmother Mrs. Whitfield of Church Street, Winlaton. Robert’s medals were sent to his brother George Hopper of Path Head, Blaydon.

Awarded the
British War and Victory medals, locally Robert is remembered on the Blaydon War
Memorial, the Plaque at St. Cuthbert’s Church, Blaydon and he was also named on
the Plaque at St. John’s Methodist Chapel, Chapel, Blaydon.

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Private Thomas Hymers HOPPER  1897 – 1918

 Thomas, one of six surviving children, was the son of Thomas Hymers Hopper senior, an engine fitter, and Emma ( Parker) Hopper. In 1911 the family were living at 67 Theresa Street, Blaydon and Thomas age 14 was working as a telegraph messenger boy. He attested to the Royal Field Artillery as a gunner, service No: 149110 and was later transferred to the Tanks Corps 13th Battalion service No: 300427. Killed in action on 9 May 1918 age 21 years, he was awarded the British War and Victory medals and is buried at Tournai
Communal Cemetery Allied Extension, Tournai, Hainaut, Belgium -  grave ref: I.M.15.On that day enemy attacks in La Clytte-Voormezeele sector repulsed; French and British positions re-established. Germans gain small success at Albert. French success
at Grivesnes, north-west of Montdidier.Tournai was captured by the German II Corps on 23 August 1914, in spite of resistance from a French Territorial Brigade, and the town remained in German hands until it was entered by the 47th (London) and 74th (Yeomanry) Divisions on 8 November 1918. The 51st (Highland) Casualty Clearing Station arrived on 14 November and remained until 20 July
1919. During the occupation, the German sick and wounded were nursed in the "Asile", whilst the Commonwealth and Allied were cared for in the Hopital Notre-Dame.

Locally Thomas is remembered on the Blaydon War Memorial,
St. Cuthbert’s Church Blaydon and the St. John Wesleyan Memorial at Trinity
Methodist Church, Blaydon.

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Private Thomas HORROCKS 1895 – 1916

 
Thomas Horrocks was born in Wigan, Lancashire, one of six children. By 1911 he was living with his widowed mother Ellen Horrocks in two rooms at 66A Back Robinson Street, Blaydon and working as a coal miner, driver. He served with the Durham Light Infantry 1/9th Battalion, service No: 2899. Posted abroad he was killed in action on 12 February 1916 age 21 years and buried at
Vlamertinghe Military Cemetery, grave Ref: II.C.5. Vlamertinghe Military Cemetery was started by French troops in 1914 and was taken over by Commonwealth forces in April 1915. It was used by fighting units and field ambulances until June 1917, when the land adjoining the cemetery was claimed for a military railway preventing further extension. The cemetery is remarkable for the care with which men of the same unit were buried side by side if they died at about the same time. There is also a very high proportion of graves of
Territorial units, in particular Lancashire Territorials, who have nearly 250 graves in plots IV, V and VI. During the early months of 1917, whenever it was possible, the 55th Division brought their dead from the front for burial here.The cemetery now contains 1,175 Commonwealth burials of the First World War. The French graves were removed after the war, but three German war graves remain. There are also four Second World War burials dating from the Allied retreat to Dunkirk in May 1940.

Awarded the 15 Star, British War and Victory
Medals, locally Thomas is remembered on the Blaydon War Memorial.

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David HOWIE 

Named on the Blaydon War Memorial.

We regret we have no other information available.

 

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Private Ernest E. HOYLAND 1884 – 1918
 

Ernest Hoyland was the son of Arthur and Maria ( Snaith Butler ) Hoyland. The family had all been born at Swinton, Yorkshire and in 1901 were living at 6 John Street,Blaydon father, mother and three sons. Ernest was working as a labourer at the iron works while his father worked as a glass blower. Ernest married Margaret Ellen Anderson in October 1913 and they lived at 9 John Street, Blaydon.
Ernest served with the Durham Light Infantry 2nd Battalion, service no: 205098. Posted to France he was killed in action on 18 September 1918 and is buried at Chappelle British Cemetery, Aisne, France; grave ref: On that day the I.A.8. Great Australian (5th/6th Australian Infantry Brigades) advance on 16-mile front (north-west of St. Quentin, extending from Holnon Wood to Gouzeaucourt; over 6,000 prisoners and a number of guns captured; outer defences of Hindenburg Line stormed in many places. TheFrench, in liaison with
British, capture Savy Wood and Fontaine-les-Cleres.End of battle of Epehy.Germans continue strong counter-attacks north and south of
Moeuvres.Holnon village and wood were the scene of heavy fighting between the 6th Division and the enemy on the 14th-19th September, 1918.Chapelle British Cemetery, named from a wayside shrine, was made after the Armistice, by the concentration of graves of 1917-18 from the battlefields West of St. Quentin and from Holnon Communal and French Military Cemeteries.There are now over 600, 1914-18 war casualties commemorated in this site. Of these, over 250 are unidentified and special memorials are erected to 17 soldiers, known or believed to be buried here. Other special memorials record the names of four United Kingdom soldiers, buried in Holnon Communal Cemetery, whose graves were destroyed by shell fire.

Awarded the British War and Victory Medals,
locally Ernest is remembered on the Blaydon War Memorial.

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John HUGHES

 
Named on the Blaydon war Memorial.

We regret there is insufficient information to identify this soldier.

 

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Private John Jobson HUTCHINSON 1895-1915

          John, born in Northumberland was the son of David and Elizabeth Hutchinson and one of eight children. In 1911 he was living with his family at 44 George Street, Blaydon and working as a coal miner while his father worked as a steam motor driver for Blaydon Urban
District Council. A later address is 129 John Street, Blaydon John attested at Blaydon on 4 June 1912 and was posted abroad on 20 April 1915. Before he was mobilised he had been working as a mechanic for Armstrong Whitworth at Scotswood Road, Newcastle.From surviving records we know he was 5’3” tall with a 33” chest. Heserved with the Durham Light Infantry 1/9th Battallion ‘D’ Company,
servcie No: 1437. Posted to Belgium he was killed in action on 11 may 1915 age 20 years. John is named on the Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing at Ypres, Belgium, Panel 36 and one of 54,406 names. The Menin Gate is one of four memorials to the missing in Belgian Flanders which cover the area known as the Ypres Salient. Broadly speaking, the Salient stretched from
Langemarck in the north to the northern edge in Ploegsteert Wood in the south, but it varied in area and shape throughout the war.The Salient was formed during the First Battle of Ypres in October and November 1914, when a small British Expeditionary Force succeeded in securing the town before the onset of winter,pushing the German forces back to the Passchendaele Ridge. The Second Battle of
Ypres began in April 1915 when the Germans released poison gas into the Allied lines north of Ypres. This was the first time
gas had been used by either side and the violence of the attack forced an Allied withdrawal and a shortening of the line of defence.The battles of the Ypres Salient claimed many lives on both sides and it quickly became clear that the commemoration of members of the Commonwealth forces with no known grave would have to be divided between several different sites. The site of the Menin
Gate was chosen because of the hundreds of thousands of men who passed through it on their way to the battlefields. It commemorates casualties from the forces of Australia, Canada, India, South Africa and United Kingdom who died in the Salient. In the case of United Kingdom casualties, only those prior 16 August 1917 (with some exceptions). United Kingdom and New Zealand servicemen who died after that date are named on the memorial at Tyne Cot, a site which marks the furthest point reached by Commonwealth forces in Belgium until nearly the end of the war.

  Awarded the 15
Star, British war and Victory Medals locally John is remembered on the Blaydon
War Memorial and the Plaque at St. Cuthbert’s Church, Blaydon.

SL/122013                                                                                                                       HUTCHINSON/BLAYDON 139